24-05-2014, 10:21 #1
[EN] Forget 'the Cloud,' Computing's Future Is in 'the Fog'
The future of much enterprise computing remains in the cloud, but the really transformative computing of the future? It's going to happen right here, in the objects that surround us—in the fog.
By Christopher Mims
May 18, 2014
Cloud advocates are fond of declaring that 100% of computing will someday reside in the cloud. And many companies are in business to sell you on that notion.
Here's the reality: Getting data into and out of the cloud is harder than most engineers, or at least their managers, often are willing to admit.
The problem is bandwidth. If you're a company simply seeking to save the cost and headache of storing data yourself, the cloud is great as long as all you need to do is transfer data back and forth via high-speed wiring.
But in the world of mass connectivity—in which people need to get information on an array of mobile devices—bandwidth is pretty slow. Any business that sends data to mobile devices, be it airline reservation systems for consumers or business data for a mobile sales force, grapples with the limitations of wireless networks.
That's one reason that mobile apps have become a predominant way to do things on the Internet, at least on smartphones. Some of the data and processing power is handled within your device.
The problem of how to get things done when we're dependent on the cloud is becoming all the more acute as more and more objects become "smart," or able to sense their environments, connect to the Internet, and even receive commands remotely. Everything from jet engines to refrigerators is being pushed onto wireless networks and joining the "Internet of Things."
Modern 3G and 4G cellular networks simply aren't fast enough to transmit data from devices to the cloud at the pace it is generated, and as every mundane object at home and at work gets in on this game, it's only going to get worse.
Luckily there's an obvious solution: Stop focusing on the cloud, and start figuring out how to store and process the torrent of data being generated by the Internet of Things (also known as the industrial Internet) on the things themselves, or on devices that sit between our things and the Internet.
Marketers at Cisco have already come up with a name for this phenomenon: fog computing.
I like the term. Yes, it makes you want to do a Liz Lemon eye roll. But like cloud computing before it—also a marketing term for a phenomenon that was already under way—it's a good visual metaphor for what's going on.
Whereas the cloud is "up there" in the sky somewhere, distant and remote and deliberately abstracted, the "fog" is close to the ground, right where things are getting done. It consists not of powerful servers, but weaker and more dispersed computers of the sort that are making their way into appliances, factories, cars, street lights and every other piece of our material culture.
Cisco sells routers, which aside from storage has got to be the least sexy business in tech. To make them more appealing, and to sell them to new markets before Chinese competitors disrupt Cisco's existing revenue streams, Cisco wants to turn its routers into hubs for gathering data and making decisions about what to do with it. In Cisco's vision, its smart routers will never talk to the cloud unless they have to—say, to alert operators to an emergency on a sensor-laden rail car on which one of these routers acts as the nerve center.
International Business Machines Corp. has a similar initiative to push computing out "to the edge," an effort to, as IBM executive Paul Brody puts it, turn the traditional, cloud-based Internet "inside out." (When people talk about "edge computing," what they literally mean is the edge of the network, the periphery where the Internet ends and the real world begins. Data centers are in the "center" of the network, personal computers, phones and surveillance cameras are on the edge.)
Just as the cloud physically consists of servers harnessed together, in IBM's research project, the fog consists of all the computers that are already around us, tied together. On one level, asking our smart devices to, for example, send software updates to one another, rather than routing them through the cloud, could make the fog a direct rival to the cloud for some functions.
The bottom line is, we just have too much data. And we're just getting started. Airplanes are a great example of this. In a new Boeing Co. 747, almost every part of the plane is connected to the Internet, recording and, in some cases, sending continuous streams of data about its status. General Electric Co. has said that in a single flight, one of its jet engines generates half a terabyte of data.
Cheap sensors generate lots of "big" data, and it's surprisingly useful. So-called predictive analytics lets companies like GE know which part of a jet engine might need maintenance, even before the plane carrying it has landed.
Why else do you think Google Inc. and Facebook Inc. are talking about alternate means of Internet access, including via balloons and drones? Existing carriers aren't getting the job done. Until the U.S. gets the fast wireless and wired Internet it deserves, computing things as close to the user as possible is going to be critical to making the Internet of Things responsive enough to be usable.
24-05-2014, 10:28 #2
WDM and 100G: A Q&A with Infonetics' Andrew Schmitt
There is so much 'blah blah blah' about video but 90 percent is cacheable. Cloud storage is not.
Q. You say the lion's share of 100G revenue is going to five companies: Alcatel-Lucent, Ciena, Cisco, Huawei, and Infinera. Most of the companies are North American. Is the growth mainly due to the US market (besides Huawei, of course). And if so, is it due to Verizon, AT&T and Sprint preparing for growing LTE traffic? Or is the picture more complex with cable operators, internet exchanges and large data centre players also a significant part of the 100G story, as Infinera claims.
A. It’s a lot more complex than the typical smartphone plus video-bandwidth-tsunami narrative. Many people like to attach the wireless metaphor to any possible trend because it is the only area perceived as having revenue and profitability growth, and it has a really high growth rate. But something big growing at 35 percent adds more in a year than something small growing at 70 percent.
The reality is that wireless bandwidth, as a percentage of all traffic, is still small. 100G is being used for the long lines of the network today as a more efficient replacement for 10G and while good quantitative measures don’t exist, my gut tells me it is inter-data-centre traffic and consumer/ business to data centre traffic driving most of the network growth today.
Última edição por 5ms; 24-05-2014 às 10:33.
24-05-2014, 13:38 #3
Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of ThingsABSTRACT
Fog Computing extends the Cloud Computing paradigm to
the edge of the network, thus enabling a new breed of applications
and services. Dening characteristics of the Fog
are: a) Low latency and location awareness; b) Wide-spread
geographical distribution; c) Mobility; d) Very large number
of nodes, e) Predominant role of wireless access, f) Strong
presence of streaming and real time applications, g) Heterogeneity.
In this paper we argue that the above characteristics
make the Fog the appropriate platform for a number
of critical Internet of Things (IoT) services and applications,
namely, Connected Vehicle, Smart Grid , Smart Cities, and,
in general, Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks(WSANs).
Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) - ACM SIGCOMM 2012, August 17, 2012, Helsinki, Finland
Última edição por 5ms; 24-05-2014 às 13:41.
24-05-2014, 13:47 #4
Fog Computing, Ecosystem, Architecture and Applications
Services are hosted at the network edge or even end devices such as set-top-boxes or access points.
Fog Computing is a paradigm that extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the network. Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end-users. The distinguishing Fog characteristics are its proximity to end-users, its dense geographical distribution, and its support for mobility. Services are hosted at the network edge or even end devices such as set-top-boxes or access points. By doing so, Fog reduces service latency, and improves QoS, resulting in superior user-experience.
Fog Computing supports emerging Internet of Everything (IoE) applications that demand real-time/predictable latency (industrial automation, transportation, networks of sensors and actuators). Thanks to its wide geographical distribution the Fog paradigm is well positioned for real time big data and real time analytics. Fog supports densely distributed data collection points, hence adding a fourth axis to the often mentioned Big Data dimensions (volume, variety, and velocity).
Unlike traditional data centers, Fog devices are geographically distributed over heterogeneous platforms, spanning multiple management domains. Cisco is interested in innovative proposals that facilitate service mobility across platforms, and technologies that preserve end-user and content security and privacy across domains.
Fog provides unique advantages for services across several verticals such as IT, entertainment, advertising, personal computing etc. Cisco is specially interested in proposals that focus on Fog Computing scenarios related to Internet of Everything (IoE), Sensor Networks, Data Analytics and other data intensive services to demonstrate the advantages of such a new paradigm, to evaluate the trade-offs in both experimental and production deployments and to address potential research problems for those deployments.
While Fog conceptually extends Cloud computing and leverages Cloud's underlying technologies, Fog, by definition, spans wider geographic locations than Cloud, and in a denser way. Also, Fog devices are much more heterogeneous in nature, ranging from end-user devices, access points, to edge routers and switches. To accommodate this heterogeneity, Fog services are abstracted inside a container for ease of orchestration. Example container technologies are Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and Linux containers.
Fog services will be orchestrated across management domains; services will be provisioned, monitored and tracked across these domains.
While Fog provides unique advantages for services across several verticals such as IT, entertainment, advertising, personal computing etc., Cisco is specially interested in investigating Fog advantages for Big Data services in several verticals including IoE. Specifically, innovations in compute, storage offerings for data intensive services such as the following:
- Interplay between the Fog and the Cloud. Typically, the Fog platform supports real-time, actionable analytics, processes, and filters the data, and pushes to the Cloud data that is global in geographical scope and time.
- Data collection and analytics (pulled from access devices, pushed to Cloud)
- Data storage for redistribution (pushed from Cloud, pulled by downstream devices)
- Technologies that facilitate data fusion in the above contexts.
- Analytics relevant for local communities across various verticals (ex: advertisements, video analytics, health care, performance monitoring, sensing etc.)
- Methodologies, Models and Algorithms to optimize the cost and performance through workload mobility between Fog and Cloud.