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  1. #1
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    [EN] Facebook, Microsoft, Google, and Amazon Wants Their Own Global Network



    “It’s about taking control of our destiny”

    Max Chafkin
    Dina Bass
    October 20, 2016

    The ships that lay cables across the ocean floor look like cargo vessels with a giant fishing reel on one end. They move ponderously across the open water, lowering insulated wire into shallow trenches in the seabed as they go. This low-tech process hasn’t changed much since 1866, when the SS Great Eastern laid the first reliable trans-Atlantic telegraph cable, capable of transmitting eight words per minute. These days, the cables are made of optical fiber, can carry 100 terabits of data or more in a second, and aren’t owned only by telephone companies.

    “There are a handful of very, very influential content providers who are shifting the balance away from the telecoms,” says Jon Hjembo, an analyst with researcher TeleGeography. Among the newcomers are a few of the world’s leading internet companies, which have concluded that, given the cost of renting bandwidth, they may as well make their own connections.

    Facebook and Microsoft have joined with Spanish provider Telefónica to lay a private trans-Atlantic fiber cable known as Marea. The three companies will divide up the cable’s eight fiber strands, with Facebook and Microsoft each getting two. The project, slated to be completed by the end of 2017, marks the first time Facebook has taken an active role in building a cable, rather than investing in existing projects or routing data through pipes controlled by traditional carriers. Marea will be Microsoft’s second private cable; a trans-Pacific one is scheduled to come online in 2017.

    Facebook and its rivals for eyeballs plan more undersea cables. In June, Google said it had finished a data pipeline running from Oregon to Taiwan, and it has at least two more coming: one from the U.S. to Brazil; the other, a joint project with Facebook, will connect Los Angeles and Hong Kong. Amazon.com made its first cable investment in May, announcing plans for a link between Australia and New Zealand and the U.S.

    Worldwide, 33 cable projects worth an estimated $8.1 billion are scheduled to be online by 2018, according to TeleGeography. That’s up from $1.6 billion worth of cables in the previous three years. And bandwidth demand is expected to double every two years.

    “These big providers need a massive amount of capacity, and the volume of data demand is exploding,” says Ihab Tarazi, the chief technology officer of Equinix, a data services company working on Google’s cable in Brazil. “They’re underwriting the next generation of capacity.” The spike in data consumption is a function of growing internet use around the world and bandwidth-hungry services like live video. “It’s not like people are just doing simple things anymore,” says Jay Parikh, a Facebook vice president for engineering.







    Cables are just one way to increase the supply of bandwidth and cut costs, says Chetan Sharma, an analyst and telecom consultant. Facebook is also working on satellites, lasers, and drones to deliver internet access to remote places, and Google has experimented with hot air balloons. So far, undersea cables remain the best option for crossing oceans—they’re cheaper, far more reliable, and largely unregulated. The United Nations treats ocean cables in much the same manner as boat traffic, meaning companies can lay and repair cables in international waters pretty much wherever they please, provided they don’t damage existing ones.

    So Silicon Valley will continue to pour money into technology pioneered in the telegraph era. “It’s about taking control of our destiny,” says Mark Russinovich, chief technology officer for Microsoft’s cloud services division, Azure. “We’re nowhere near being built out.”

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articl...adband-network
    Última edição por 5ms; 21-10-2016 às 09:56.

  2. #2
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    Rede privada OVH




    Cogent
    Última edição por 5ms; 21-10-2016 às 11:02.

  3. #3
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    Google Hooks Up FASTER Subsea Link to Its Taiwan Data Center

    Google has extend the Trans-Pacific link to the rest of Asia, with the investment in a cable that links FASTER submarine cable in Japan on to Taiwan.

    Namely, Taiwan host Google’s largest data center in Asia which provides millions of people across Asia with quick access to its tools and services, now at speeds of up to 26 terabits per second.

    To remind The FASTER subsea cable system, developed by a consortium of six international companies, came online in June. It linked Oregon in the United States and two landing points in Japan, namely Chiba and Mie prefectures.

    According to Google, “this new cable should help Google products and services load more quickly across the region. It should also improve the reliability and consistency of this speedier experience, since the cable was strategically built outside of tsunami zones to help prevent network outages related to natural disasters.”

    Subsea World News Staff
    September 6, 2016
    http://subseaworldnews.com/2016/09/0...n-data-center/

  4. #4
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    Huawei Marine Deploys SeaX-1 Subsea Cable

    Known as SEA Cable Exchange-1 (SeaX-1), the system comprises a 250 km, 24-fibre pair undersea fiber optic cable that will connect Mersing (Malaysia), Changi (Singapore), and Batam (Indonesia).

    Phase three will connect Asian countries including Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, with Singapore acting as a transit hub to the rest of the world.

    James Pearce
    20 October 2016

    A new submarine cable system has been launched that will connect Singapore to the US via Guam.

    Super Sea Cable Networks (SEAX)’s system is aimed at wholesale carriers for emerging markets, and will divided in three development phases between 2016 and 2021.

    The first phase will see Singapore connected with Malaysia and Indonesia, drawing traffic from the region towards Singapore and out to the rest of the world.

    The second phase will see the cable system linked to the US through the Micronesia region of the Pacific, running through Guam. According to SEAX, this means the system will provide a path avoiding the earthquake-prone and heavy shipping area in the South China Sea.

    Phase three will connect Asian countries including Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, with Singapore acting as a transit hub to the rest of the world.

    "With SEAX’s submarine cable system network, we believe we could be able to draw transit traffic from the Middle East as well as to the region and to provide them a reach into the emerging markets," the company said in the press release.

    The 250km undersea fibre-optic cable comprises of high-speed, large capacity, 24-fibre pair of undersea fibre-optic cables and will be constructed by Huawei Marine, but fully owned by Super Sea Cable Networks.

    Speaking at the official launch, which took place on 18 October, Speaker of Parliament Halimah Yacob said broadband access was necessary for people to benefit from economic opportunities and stay connected with each other in the modern world.

    "The introduction of submarine cables into isolated and third-world country locations has reduced the cost of communication access and stimulated increased economic growth," Halimah said.

    The system will be targeted to complete by the end of 2017.

    Mike Constable, CEO of Huawei Marine said, “We are delighted to be selected for this project which will provide robust connectivity to these three regional data hubs.”

    Joseph Lim, CEO of Super Sea Cable Networks said: “SeaX-1 passes through one of the busiest region in the Asia Pacific region, where bandwidth demands are increasing exponentially. We believe this new submarine cable system will relieve bandwidth pressures on existing infrastructure and continue to provide this region with high-speed, reliable connectivity that will fast-track its growth.”

    http://www.capacitymedia.com/Article...Singapore.html

    http://subseaworldnews.com/2016/09/0...-subsea-cable/

  5. #5
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    Hawaiki Subsea Cable Route Survey Underway






    Hawaiki Cable, built by Hawaiki Submarine Cable LP and TE SubCom, a subsidiary of TE Connectivity, is set for completion in mid-2018.


    Funded by Amazon, Vodafone, REANNZ, and the American Samoa Telecomms Authority, the 14,000 km transpacific submarine cable will connect Australia and New Zealand to the US mainland, along with Hawaii and potentially several South Pacific islands. It runs from Sydney and Mangawhai, through Oamu and to Pacific City, Oregon.

    The carrier-neutral cable will deliver more than 30 Tbps of capacity using TE SubCom’s C100U+ Submarine Line Terminating Equipment (SLTE), making it the highest cross-sectional capacity link between the US and Australia and New Zealand.

    “Each stage of this groundbreaking project is important, but after very carefully planning our transpacific route and conducting an extensive survey of each landing site, we are extremely pleased to launch the marine route survey, which will give us data necessary to safely and properly deploy the system in the coming months,” said Remi Galasso, CEO of Hawaiki.

    Aaron Stucki, president of TE SubCom, added: “Before deploying a cable system, a marine route survey is conducted to gather the geophysical and geotechnical data needed to ensure the cable is buried safely and securely.

    “It’s a vital and significant step in the process of launching a new cable system, and we share in Hawaiki’s excitement as our companies move forward with this project.”

    http://www.datacenterdynamics.com/co...ble-sets-sail/

    Custo estimado: US$ 500 milhões
    Última edição por 5ms; 21-10-2016 às 15:46.

  6. #6
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    The OTT Firms Rule Under the Waves

    Robert Clark
    10/28/2016

    Facebook and Google attracted headlines earlier this month over their plans to jointly build a 120Tbit/s subsea cable across the north Pacific.

    The two Internet giants plan to build the largest undersea cable across the planet's biggest ocean, joining up with little-known Hong Kong company Pacific Light Data Communication and vendor TE Subcom.

    The Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), which will run from Los Angeles to Hong Kong at a cost of approximately $400 million, is due for completion in 2018.

    But it's part of a bigger story about the OTT players' growing dominance of the global capacity business.

    The big Internet firms account for most of the new cable builds and are about to overtake operators as the biggest carriers of bandwidth.

    According to TeleGeography Inc. , they already carry most of the traffic on the Atlantic route.

    That's not including the massive MAREA cable, now being built by Facebook and Microsoft Corp. (Nasdaq: MSFT). The 160Tbit/s link will land in Bilbao, Spain, south of the traditional cable routes, to provide direct access to continental Europe.

    TeleGeography research director Alan Mauldin estimates that private networks account for 39% of global traffic today and will likely account for the majority by 2019.

    But "it could certainly be sooner," he adds. "The pace of growth these content providers are experiencing is incredible and it's difficult to know how it will trend."

    Eric Handa, CEO of consultancy AP Telecom, believes the OTT players' role will increase. "We're really at the onset of a lot of the OTT operators going to continue to incubate and help facilitate new systems on new routes."

    "It's simply a question of cost economics," he adds. "They need this capacity at the lowest premium cost. It effectively makes sense to build it on your own."

    The PLCN is Google (Nasdaq: GOOG)'s sixth major submarine cable. The 60Tbit/s FASTER trans-Pacific system, currently the biggest Pacific system, and built in partnership with operators including KDDI Corp. and China Telecom Corp. Ltd. (NYSE: CHA), has just gone into service.

    These new systems are part of a new-build phase in the highly cyclical bandwidth business following several years in which fresh capacity came mostly from upgrades.

    Due to come into service from Los Angeles in the next two years are the SEA-US cable that goes to Indonesia and Guam; the Hawaiki, to Australia and New Zealand; and the New Cross Pacific that runs to China, Japan and is backed by Microsoft.

    Mauldin says bandwidth demand on most routes has been growing at a rate of 40% or more for the past five years.

    If that level is maintained, even with this spurt of expansion, trans-Pacific capacity will be exhausted by the end of 2022. A capacity crunch is highly unlikely, however, and already a number of new systems are under discussion, Mauldin says.

    He points out that, despite their growing dominance ,the OTT providers still source some capacity from long-haul providers.

    However, the problem for the wholesale carriers is that "demand is growing at a slower pace though overall, compared to the content providers' demand."

    http://www.lightreading.com/optical/...nder-the-waves

  7. #7
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    "TeleGeography research director Alan Mauldin estimates that private networks account for 39% of global traffic today and will likely account for the majority by 2019."

    "... despite their growing dominance ,the OTT providers still source some capacity from long-haul providers."

    However, the problem for the wholesale carriers is that "demand is growing at a slower pace though overall, compared to the content providers' demand."



    O problema é que a Web acabou e 90% do tráfego da Internet é entretenimento.
    Última edição por 5ms; 28-10-2016 às 18:00.

  8. #8
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    Fortune on the high seas

    The average submarine cable has a design life of 25 years but the economic useful life is probably about 15 years.


    Sebastian Moss
    14 October 2016


    Lines are being drawn across the world that will shape the future of the Internet

    To support the growth of global Internet traffic, investment is flowing into laying vast submarine cables that stretch across the oceans.

    Ships 140 meters in length, specifically designed for this complex task, plow the continental shelf, burying cables up to three meters under the ocean floor. Remotely operated vehicles scan the depths, looking for underwater walls, jagged rocks, trawl scars and sunken ships, searching for the perfect pathway across thousands of kilometers of hostile terrain.

    The ocean kings

    This epic undertaking is fundamental to the continued expansion of the digital era, with an estimated 99 percent of all transoceanic digital communication being carried by these fiber optic cables. But with cables costing anywhere from $200M to $1B to put in place, only a few companies can afford to do this, and where they decide to place their cables will have a profound impact on how the future of the internet is developed.

    The average submarine cable has a design life of 25 years, but “the economic useful life, financial useful life, is something much shorter than that, probably about 12 to 15 years,” said Debra Brask, VP of Project Management for TE SubCom. “It’s mainly because technology changes and then the per bit cost goes down, so it almost becomes more expensive to manage the older networks.”

    But for those 12 or so years, that cable remains the backbone of oceanic data transfer in its region and a whole ecosystem is built around it. “More and more cables, and more networks, and more clouds come in to collect the capacity,” said Ihab Tarazi, Equinix CTO.

    Whichever companies take advantage of cables laid now stand to reap the rewards for the next decade. Equinix, in particular, has eagerly jumped into the field, announcing its involvement in 12 different projects.

    Perhaps its most technologically important project is the Monet cable, stretching from Florida in the US to Praia Grande in Brazil. Laid by TE SubCom, and funded by Google and several South American telecoms companies, the 10,556km (6,560 mile) long cable does something few submarine cables have done before – it travels directly into the data center.

    “What we did is we worked with Google closely and built a new model that allows the two of us to be able to land the cable system in a data center without the need for a cable station or a network in the middle,” Tarazi told DatacenterDynamics.

    “The biggest thing for us here is that the global backbone will point towards our data centers if we continue to execute and win more and more of these cables, which is very good for us and our customers,” he added.

    Submarine network provider Aqua Comms has worked on similar technology for its own cables: “We can light from data center to data center,” said CEO Greg Varisco. “To be able to do that direct optical-to-optical lighting, you eliminate a lot of additional equipment and optical-electrical-optical conversions in the middle. That doesn’t happen in the cable stations any more.

    “Now that’s important, because now you can provision quicker. You have just the two ends to do work. You can provision to turn capacity on and off quicker, and security-wise, you can encrypt from data center to data center.”

    Boom or bust?

    Future cables will likely follow this approach, but one question remains: How many new cables will there be? We are in the middle of a boom, but it’s unclear how long this will last.

    “Traditionally, it’s been a very cyclical market,” said Brask. “In the past, what you would find is that there would be many long international cable systems built over the course of about three years.”

    After this, feeder systems and smaller networks are built: “So you basically expand off those large pipes into these other smaller systems. But they’re much smaller, so obviously the total market value goes down.”

    The last submarine expansion was in the 1990s, driven by the dotcom boom. International operators laid cables frantically in order to corner an expected future market.

    In 2001, traditional telecoms companies spent $13B on international fiber. Then it all went wrong. By 2003, firms including Verizon and Global Crossing had gone bankrupt, spending was down to $1B, and the world had a glut of unlit fiber.

    The telecoms crash was caused partly by the bursting of the dotcom bubble, but also by the invention of dense wave-division multiplexing (DWDM), which increased the data capacity of fiber 100-fold. It’s taken years to use that capacity.

    In the new boom, the focus has shifted from Western telcos to cloud providers, and Tier-I carriers in Asia including China Telecom, China Unicom and Korea Telecom.

    Google, Microsoft and Amazon are all heavily invested in building a huge submarine network that will support an era where zettabytes of data will be transfered. But will they too slow down cable expansion after this wave?

    “It’s hard for me to tell. I don’t know. It seems to me like it’s different, but given that I have been in the industry for almost 20 years, I haven’t seen it. I haven’t seen it be different,” Brask said.

    “You want to always try to strive to keep things as flat as possible and not so cyclical, but we just build the systems, we don’t drive the demand,” she said.

    While the iron is hot

    For now, though, while the demand lasts, there is still a fortune to be made on the high seas. Data usage is growing, and the aging underwater infrastructure will not be up to the task - especially with the redundancy and latency requirements of modern cloud providers.

    But to place these cables takes time, money, and political wherewithal. “All of a sudden a government of a country can say ‘no you can’t be here’,” said Brask.

    Permits, one of the most time-intensive aspects of submarine cabling, can take over two years in countries like China.

    Elsewhere, like Taiwan, there are defined cable corridors, but these corridors of power come with their own risks - a 2006 earthquake in the country took out several cables and temporarily cut off communication to parts of China, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia.

    Legislation, military actions and the need to diversify routes will help define the pathway and landing points of these cables, affecting the nations that they land on and those around them.

    In developing countries, where the digital infrastructure is still lacking, cables can only take the country so far.

    “We had built a system on the West Coast of Africa called Main One a while ago, and you basically got into the cable station, but there was still struggles to get that into a city center, a PoP, a data center, and that took a little while,” said Brask.

    The future will likely see some of those customers served via satellites. “There’s new satellite technology, and we’re going to make some announcements on some of them,” Tarazi said.

    “These satellites put in now can use new coherent advanced optics – the same ones they use underwater – and with that you’re going to be able to squeeze a lot more capacity into satellites, so we see satellite distribution as a second option for places that you cannot get to so easily with cable. But fiber will always be number one in its capacity, and satellites will be filling in the gaps in places that will be hard to get to.”

    Brask agreed: “I think there’s going to be a need for sure to have these systems for a very long time. I don’t see what replaces fiber-optic cables. I see that you would have to have them to truly carry bandwidth between countries. To have a world wide web, and to use it to its fullest, you’re going to have to have submarine cables.”

    A version of this article appeared in the October issue of DatacenterDynamics magazine.

    http://www.datacenterdynamics.com/co...-the-high-seas

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